Walking and Cycling
24 February 2020
- Let government plan transport services, but at a decentralised level.
- Consider corporatising publicly operated transport services.
- Pay close attention to system design where competition in public transport provision is introduced.
- Pay attention to service quality as well as costs to achieve a sustainable public transport system.
- Take the broader urban context into account in designing and adopting public transport reforms.
5 November 2019
- Update transport policy and regulation to accommodate innovation that can contribute to economic growth and make transport more sustainable.
- Cooperate with research and industry, coordinate with all government levels.
- Leave room for bottom up innovation through a light regulatory touch.
- Be ready to facilitate discussion between innovative actors and traditional operators.
- Foster innovation in the delivery of concessioned transport services.
- Support change and build on existing cultural practices in order to improve quality of life for all.
- Create innovation sandboxes/living labs.
- Look beyond transport towards non-traditional policy matters.
16 September 2019
- Re-orient and harmonise maritime subsidy policies.
- Clarify objectives of maritime subsidies.
- Make maritime subsidies more conditional on positive impacts.
- Design maritime subsidies in ways that avoid market distortions.
- Improve transparency around maritime subsidies.
19 May 2019
- Use the new urban accessibility framework to compare and benchmark cities.
- Improve accessibility by reducing trip lengths and enhancing transport performance.
- Learn from similar cities with higher accessibility scores.
- Collect more and better urban mobility data, notably on walking and cycling.
13 May 2019
- Улучшение транспортного сообщения на местном уровне наряду с развитием международных коридоров.
- Установление цен на транзитные перевозки, покрывающих все связанные с ними расходы.
- Реформирование системы финансирования дорожно-ремонтных работ и инвестиций в дорожные сети.
- Привлечение частных инвестиций исходя из соображений экономической эффективности.
- Содействие в формировании современной логистической отрасли.
- Внедрение передового опыта в сфере транспортного планирования.
- Установление стандартов деятельности для таможенных органов.
- Упорядочение регионального и международного сотрудничества.
25 March 2019
- Improve understanding of links between changes in accessibility and well-being.
- Analyse local accessibility needs rather than focusing on the regional scale.
- Use a mix of easy-to-use indicators to support planning decisions.
- Move beyond measuring availability of infrastructure to an examination of user needs.
- Develop better methodologies for including accessibility considerations into project appraisal.
14 March 2019
- Improve the collection and dissemination of disaggregated data on the level and characteristics of private investments in transport infrastructure.
27 January 2019
- Distinguish between infrastructure and the operations that take place on it.
- To pursue private investment in infrastructure, choose between competition for the contract or the regulated model.
- Differentiate between attracting private investors in existing assets (privatisation) and in new infrastructure PPPs.
7 November 2018
- Favour the use of confidential contracts.
- Consider the use of arbitration.
- Reinforce legal capacity.
- Develop financial accounting and reporting requirements.
- Consider adapting the standard North American financial reporting form for Mexico.
- Develop a standard waybill.
- Develop a waybill sample data collection and analysis system.
- Determine the structure of the waybill sample.
- Choose a contractor to process waybills.
- Establish a network modelling process to generate traffic flow analyses.
2 November 2018
- Adopt a presumption toward repeal of shipping-specific block exemptions from competition law.
- Improve project appraisal for port and hinterland infrastructure and adopt common principles for port pricing.
- Establish more coherent ports policies to clarify roles and reduce risk of creating over-capacity.
25 October 2018
- Integrate the new airport into strategic plans for sustainable urban transport.
- Prioritise access by public transport in the layout of the airport terminal.
- Establish priorities for investment in public transport links to the airport.
- Preserve alignments for infrastructure than can only be funded later on.
- Plan now for links that will serve both developments on the old airport site and the new airport.
- Integrate new public transport links with existing networks seamlessly.
- Create the framework for investment in fast, seamless, reliable rail or metro links.
- Explore a range of potential funding options for premium rail or metro services.
- Maintain today’s world-class long distance coach services.
- Fund public transport investments with the potential to relieve road congestion and air pollution.
10 October 2018
- Make demand management and congestion reduction the primary objective of road pricing.
- Differentiate road pricing by location and time.
- Combine road pricing and public transport planning to improve efficiency.
- Examine the combined effects of scheme design and mitigation to understand distributional impacts.
- Consider the use of discounts and exemptions carefully.
- Develop road pricing as part of an intervention package to achieve better utilisation of urban space.
- Reconcile economic, practical and political aspects in the design of road pricing schemes.
- Differentiate charges and consider adopting a rules-based pricing approach.
21 June 2018
- Pursue private investment in infrastructure on the merits of improved efficiency.
- Invest more into upfront preparation of projects to reduce inefficient risk pricing by suppliers.
- Undertake a comprehensive analysis of how to assist suppliers.
- The pursuit of certainty in delivery should be balanced against cost.
- Stimulate innovation through early contractor involvement or alliancing, not public-private partnerships.
- Avoid transferring demand risk to public-private partnerships if service levels do not strongly impact demand.
- Bundle and cross-fund public-private partnerships to reduce demand risk.
- Adopt the regulatory asset base model where competition is absent or demand not strongly endogenous.
- Introduce a transparent public accounting standard to maximise the value for money of private investment.
- Foster competitive markets to achieve cost-effective infrastructure.
- Pursue data collection on how contract design affects project outcomes.
- Support the development of an evidence-supported procurement tool.
16 May 2018
- Public authorities must prepare for a much more networked and meshed world.
- Take into account changes in data science and technology when developing Mobility as a Service.
- Look beyond initial cryptocurrency applications of distributed ledger technologies.
- Governments should help deploy the building blocks that enable wider uptake of distributed ledgers.
- Apply blockchain technology now for slow and (relatively) small transport use cases; anticipate next generation distributed ledger technologies for “big and fast” applications to be deployed later.
- Governments should develop algorithmic code-based regulation to accompany the uptake of distributed ledger technologies.
2 May 2018
- Shared mobility is still a relatively new field but is progressing rapidly. With business models and preferred technologies still in flux, policy makers need to prepare considered responses to these developments without delay.
- Service concepts and technology currently and on the brink of being explored need to consider a range of design domain restrictions, dependencies on infrastructure, operating principles and user interfaces.
- Specific service concepts should be matched to specific operational environments, on a detailed local level as well as across continents and cultures.
- Government action will affect how automated vehicles will impact society. Existing approaches will not be appropriate for long. Their understanding and input will help to balance the debate on whether AVs can indeed alleviate a series of stubborn problems.
1 February 2018
- Public transport scheduling needs to consider a wider range of needs and preferences.
- Taxi and informal transit services require safer regulations and technologies.
- Gender analysis leads to effective and efficient transport demand management.
- Safety improvements are key to ensure optimal public transport use.
29 January 2018
- Ne renégocier les PPP que dans des cas exceptionnels.
- Faire appel à un arbitre indépendant pour établir si le résultat d’un PPP cadre avec ce que les parties auraient négocié si elles avaient prévu le changement intervenu.
- Envisager de charger une instance indépendante de statuer sur le bien-fondé de la renégociation d’un PPP.
- Inclure la réputation et la compétence avérée parmi les critères d’attribution des contrats de PPP.
- Comparer les avantages et inconvénients des PPP avec ceux des autres formes de participation des capitaux privés.
27 November 2017
- Planifier d’emblée la collecte des données nécessaires à l’évaluation.
- Procéder à un exercice de vérification en cours d’exécution.
- Confier l’exercice de vérification à des entités indépendantes.
- Reconnaître la diversité des objectifs économiques des investissements dans les transports.
- Associer les partenaires locaux en démontrant l’efficacité du projet.
30 May 2017
- The process should start with an assessment of need for new infrastructure.
- Comparable assessments should be undertaken for a range of feasible options.
- Selection criteria need to examine all positive and negative impacts of airport capacity expansion.
- Assessments need to incorporate considerations of risk and uncertainty.
- The process needs to be clear, transparent, collaborative, and trade-offs need to be explicitly considered.
30 May 2017
- Ex-post case studies of accessibility improvements can provide evidence on impacts.
- A large, ex-ante assessment of proposed measures to improve accessibility can shed light on the practical application of different methodologies.
- Accessibility research should be explicitly integrated with health and wellbeing research.
30 May 2017
- Focus on improving overall mobility outcomes, not just on lowering public transport costs.
- Set a vision for urban transport that includes full integration of innovative mobility options.
- Ensure partnerships between public transport and innovative mobility operators to improve mobility for all people, including those with disabilities.
- Target low-performing or costly routes, and leverage government assets to guide convergence.
- Split regulatory oversight from operation of urban transport and adapt procurement practices.
- Mitigate innovation risk for new services through pilots and portfolio management.
- Incentivise age- and disability-friendly interactions in partnerships between public transport and ride-service operators.
30 May 2017
- Start to integrate shared mobility solutions into existing urban transport plans.
- Leverage shared mobility to increase use of existing high-capacity public transport.
- Deploy shared mobility services in a phased way that maximises public acceptance.
- Optimise overall efficiency while assuring a healthy level of competition in the market.
- Limit exclusive occupancy of shared vehicles to avoid the erosion of traffic reduction and CO2 emissions.
- Leverage the significant potential of improved territorial accessibility created by shared mobility.
- Make shared mobility services fully accessible to citizens with reduced mobility benefits.
30 May 2017
- Design accessibility metrics to matter for people and policies.
- Leverage new data sources and methods for accessibility analysis.
- Invest in accessibility, not just roads, in fast growing cities.
- Make use of accessibility analyses to support decision-making.
23 May 2017
- Develop tailor-made governance arrangements for ports.
- Allow decentralised port governance to create additional benefits for local communities.
- Coordinate public port investment, nationally and where possible at a supra-national level.
- Ensure that ports not only focus on profits, but also take local impacts into account.
22 March 2017
- Systemic risks can be reduced where projects form part of a broad and long-term strategic plan.
- Strategic infrastructure planning carries its own risks, including technology's influence on demand- and supply-side considerations.
- When it works well, strategic planning can set out a stable set of priorities for future investment with durable cross-party support.
- A successful infrastructure planning process balances a stable framework with maintaining flexibility.
- The planning process requires clear objectives, a degree of independence and an open, collaborative approach.
- The planning methodology needs to address risks and uncertainties, take into account binding policy constraints and include considerations of pricing the use of infrastructure.
- A top-down approach to infrastructure planning to complement traditional project by project assessment is essential to a strategic assessment of long-term economic infrastructure needs across sectors.
- Infrastructure planning across sectors can help identify the most important systemic risks early.
- Using analytical methods such as a scenario-based approach to analysis can be helpful in future-proofing infrastructure plans.
- It is important to consider how demand for scarce infrastructure can be managed. Debt management need to be part of any strategic investment plan.
- A top-down approach could foster the development of an analytical framework for investment decisions reflecting both demand and supply side considerations.
28 February 2017
- Data collection for evaluation needs to be planned for from the outset.
- Audit transport projects throughout the project stages
- Use independent organisations to carry out audits of transport projects.
- Recognise the variety of economic goals targeted by transport investments.
- Involve local partners in providing evidence on performance.
24 February 2017
- Use renegotiation of PPPs only in exceptional cases.
- Use an independent jury to assess whether the outcome of a PPP is what parties might have been expected to negotiate had they foreseen a change that has occurred.
- Consider to task an independent body with determining when renegotiation of a PPP is legitimate.
- Include reputation and demonstrated competence in selection criteria for a PPP.
- Compare advantages and weaknesses of PPPs versus other forms of private capital.
19 January 2017
- Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) guidelines can be expanded to include reliability and some wider impacts.
- Further research into reliability benefits is needed to improve confidence in results.
- Wider economic impacts should be examined in cases where they are expected to be significant.
- Further research into the impacts and tools for capturing wider impacts is needed.
- Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can play an important role in decision making, but need not dominate.
6 July 2016
- Use quantitative methods to analyse the key drivers of airport demand.
- Use expert guidance to help interpret the quantitative results.
- Quality-assure the analysis and counter the risks of optimism bias.
- Reflect the risks and uncertainties that arise in even the best forecasts.
- Make better use of demand forecasts in airport infrastructure planning.
24 September 2013
- A mix of financing models spreads risks.
- A dedicated budget for PPPs, set in relation to the rate at which future liabilities will be accumulated, can provide such a limit.
- Explicit consideration of alternative financing arrangements should be employed in determining whether to proceed with PPP projects.
- It is recommended that governments require PPP projects to pass tests of affordability and to clear the hurdle rates of return generally applied to publicly financed transport projects.
- The expected cost of PPP projects should take account of cost inflation resulting from the propensity for projects to be renegotiated.
- At the individual project level, risks should be assigned to the party best able to manage them, along with rights to make related decisions.
- Assigning demand risk is not straightforward and risk sharing arrangements are therefore common.
- Continuity of resources and expertise is essential for addressing strategic behaviour and optimism bias more generally.
- Regulatory agencies are well placed to ensure transparency and accountability by publishing reports on the criteria employed to make decisions and publishing contracts.